" This website is created with the efforts of the one concerned, but the contents information are from the different sources indicated on the first part of each module. This is not to own the site,but to acknowledge the sources, that helped me in complying this, as part of the subject. This is just for educational purposes."

Module 10

Posted on Friday, March 18, 2011 by Angel

Module 10: Business Letter
Posted by: Angelita P. Oblianda
Sources: Interactive Technical Writing by P.C. Villamarzo et al.



         A famous journalist says, "The ability to communicate effectively is essential in today's demanding business climate. Weather it is writing a business memo or articulating an idea during a presentation , your success will be determined greatly by your ability to inspire others by expressing yourself clearly and concisely, and with warmth and passion.

Business Letters

           The success or failure of any business endeavor largely depends on how you write your business letters. Generally, business letters influence, persuade, impress, convince, and induce a course of action usually favorable to both yourself and the reader.

The following are the major types of business letters:

1. Inquiry

          A letter requesting information from a company.
Charles Parkhust (1963) suggested the following steps for an inquiry letter:

    1. State the reason for your inquiry.
    2. Offer an additional statement to explain your intention on the material or information that will be given to you.
    3. Explain, if it seems necessary, why you have addressed your inquiry to the reader, without using flattery. 
    4. Close felicitously. Avoid stereotyped phrases such as many thanks, thanking you in advance, and thank you.


1102 West 30th
Lawrence, KS 66321
August 4, 19XX

Dr. Maria Gomez-Salinas
Director of the Diabetes Clinic
St. David's Hospital
1000 Greenberg Lane
Wichita, KS 66780

Dear Dr. Gomez-Salinas: 

I am writing you in hopes of finding out more about how the
new Glucoscan II blood glucose monitoring system, which a
representative at Lifescan informed me that your clinic is
currently using. 

Originally, I saw Lifescan's advertisement of this new
device in the January 19XX issue of Diabetes Forecast and
became very interested in it. I wrote the company and got
much useful information, but was recommended to write
several current users of the system as well. 

For a technical report that I am writing for a technical
writing class at Johnson County Junior College, I need some
help with the following questions: 

   1. How often does the Glucoscan II need to be calibrated in practical, everyday use conditions?
   2. How accurate is the Glucoscan II compared to other similar systems that your patients have used?
   3. What problems do your patients experience with this new device?

The Lifescan representative indicated that your clinic is
one the leaders in implementing new technology for
diabetics, and therefore I am eager to hear from you. In
the report I will acknowledge your contributions, and I
will send you a copy of the completed report if you wish. 

Thank you for your time, and I hope to hear from you soon.


Anita Teller   
Student, Medical Technology
Johnson County Junior College

2. Reply

    A letter responding to an inquiry. A response to an inquiry should be handled promptly, cheerfully, and efficiently regardless of whether the information asked for is to be given or not. Its main purpose is to supply the information asked for in the inquiry letter, when available, or to offer an alternative information when the one requested is not available or highly confidential in nature.

A good plan for a letter of response is as follows:

     1. Thank the writer for his letter, showing appreciation for his interest in your business - its product or its services.

     2. Give the information requested in a cheerful manner; if possible, add relevant material.

     3. Indicate a willingness to be of further assistance.

     4. Enclose folders, booklets, or catalogs, if these are available .

     5. Include a note of goodwill.


January 12, 2000

Dear Applicant,


Our office has learned that you are interested to emigrate in Canada.  We assessed your qualifications from your resume and we are happy to inform you that you can be qualified to live in Canada as Independent Immigrant with your family. Our office, Bright Future Immigration Services (BFIS), was established precisely to render such quality services.

We know that immigrating to Canada is very important decision to make.  Processing the documents can be confusing and tedious.  It is necessary to make sure your application is carefully, completely and properly prepared and submitted.  To do so, you must either know what the rules are or have competent and trustworthy assistance from someone who does.  Here at BFIS our consultants are well prepared to give you such assistance.

BFIS offers the most affordable consultation fee as compared with other consulting firms because considering the demands of people is always our priority.  In connection with this, we offers a “FLY NOW, PAY LATER PROGRAM (FNPLP)” in response to your request. This package includes airfare, employment assistance, documents assistance in Canada and free one month lodging after arriving in Canada.  This program is no different from our standard rate plan, which means if your avail our FNPLP you will paying the same amount of consultation fee… NO INTEREST!

If you truly have the strong desire to live and work in Canada, we suggest you to contact to us Tel. Nos.: 457-7458 loc. 11/12 or visit our office at Unit 2, Tower Bldg., Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City and learn more about our program.  Our regular seminar schedule is held daily at 9:00 am. (Monday to Friday).  For Saturday we have two sessions: 9:00 a.m and 2:00 p.m.  There is a reservation fee of Ph 350.00 and a consultation fee of Ph 300.00 on the day of the seminar.  We assure you will not be disappointed in what we have to offer.  If you act now, will have your Permanent Resident Visa in just a short span of time.  Thank you very much and we will also appreciate if you tell your friends about our services.

Sincerely yours,

Telits Guevarra
Managing Director/Consultant
Bright Future Immigration Services

3. Order 

      A letter ordering for company goods or services.The use of order forms has been the trend in most companies. Order forms, in some instances, however, are accompanied by letters of order that contain essential data regarding the goods ordered. These data are as follows:

     1. A complete description of the merchandise ordered

          a. quantity
          b. trade name
          c. size
          d. style or style number
          e. color
          f. catalogue
          g. quality
          h. price

      2. Necessary information regarding the shipment of the merchandise, such as :

          a. complete name and address of buyer
          b. preferred date of shipment
          c. manner of shipment
          d. credit references, if necessary


August 3, 2004

Mrs. Erlinda Ramos
MGT Marketing
Abucay, Bataan

Dear Mrs. Ramos:

Enclosed is a money order for two hundred dollar ($200) in return for which please send me by parcel post:

1 piece bathing suit, navy blue and white, size 33, No. H61 – $60.00
1 pair of white canvas tennis shoes, crepe soles, size 4, C width – $40.00
1 Tilden tennis rocket, green and white trim, green strings, wt. 13 oz., handle 4 inches – $45.00
1 grey sweater, V-neck, size 28, No. B25 – $55.00

Please send these articles within five days.

Very truly yours,

Mr. Roderick Santos

4. Sales

      A letter offering a product or services.Just like any business latter, a sales letter is effective if it achieves its purpose, which is, to induce the prospective buyers to accept the offer. Selling as a process involves four steps:

      1. Attracting attention
      2. Creating interest and desire
      3. Arousing conviction
      4. Stimulating action

      Although "person-to-person" selling today has widely used in business firms, selling by mail has three advantages and is often resorted to :

      1. the sales letter may be used for selling a great variety of merchandise;
      2. it is far less costly to sell by mail than to maintain a sales forcce; and
      3. the sales letter is efficient.


December 05, 2005

Dear Reader:

Did you know that FRH Magazine was also involved in music? This might surprise you, but your favorite magazine actually has CARE FOR YOU, a music especially made for you.

We call the album CARE FOR YOU because whenever you need music to calm you, to lift your spirits, or just to enjoy, here’s where it will be. Here’s music that offers hours and hours of pure listening pleasures… music to unwind with at the end of a busy day Here’s music for those quieter times when you’re with someone special, in a reflective mood, sipping cocktails at twilight, having intimate dinner or entertaining a small group of friends Here are 25 exquisitely melodic songs from the sentimental to the soothing including: Because of You, It Might be You, Save the Last Dance for me, Hello it’s Me, Stand by Me, I’ve Been Loving You Too Long, When I Need You…. all superb performances and arrangements that are smoother than you’ve ever heard before.

FRH Magazine recordings are products of precise craftsmanship and the finest materials available. The latest advance in high fidelity sound production has been used in their manufacture. And FRH Magazine offers you this guarantee if, in spite of strict quality – control inspections, a defective record or cassette slips through, you only have to return it within a month of receipt and you get an immediate replacement.

Think about it: CARE FOR YOU offers you popular music in a romantic vein on 5 stereo records or cassettes – 25 bestselling songs, freshly performed by top orchestras and vocal groups! The price is even a bigger, pleasanter surprise: Only $150!

This offer, however, cannot last long enough for all FRH Magazine subscribers to avail themselves of because the expiry date is June 15, 2006. Our advice, therefore, is easier followed than forgotten. ACT NOW by filling out the enclosed order card.

Sincerely yours,

Sara May Santos
Sales Manager

5. Claim

     A letter explaining the circumstances of a claim.
     The nature of a claim may deal with one of the following:

     1. Merchandise - claims may vary from orders incorrectly served or insatifactory quality of merchandise to goods damaged or delayed in shipment;

     2. Amounts of money - you may file complaints due to errors in statements and invoices or misunderstandings regarding prices.

     3. Services - you write a letter of complaint brought about by delays in filling orders or requests for service.

     Stewart et al. have suggested 5 basic rules in writing claim letters:

     1. Explain carefully and tactfully what is wrong.
     2. Include any details necessary to identify your claim such as dates, catalog numbers, styles, order form, and the like.

    3. Indicate the loss you have suffered, but do not exaggerate.

    4. Explain, in general , what you believe the company should do about your claim, but do not be unreasonable in your request.

    5. Avoid negative accusations or threats, such as " I demand ", " I must insist ", " You will have to ", " Unless you ", and " Why can't you? " 


December 05, 2005

Dear Reader:

Did you know that FRH Magazine was also involved in music? This might surprise you, but your favorite magazine actually has CARE FOR YOU, a music especially made for you.

We call the album CARE FOR YOU because whenever you need music to calm you, to lift your spirits, or just to enjoy, here’s where it will be. Here’s music that offers hours and hours of pure listening pleasures… music to unwind with at the end of a busy day Here’s music for those quieter times when you’re with someone special, in a reflective mood, sipping cocktails at twilight, having intimate dinner or entertaining a small group of friends Here are 25 exquisitely melodic songs from the sentimental to the soothing including: Because of You, It Might be You, Save the Last Dance for me, Hello it’s Me, Stand by Me, I’ve Been Loving You Too Long, When I Need You…. all superb performances and arrangements that are smoother than you’ve ever heard before.

FRH Magazine recordings are products of precise craftsmanship and the finest materials available. The latest advance in high fidelity sound production has been used in their manufacture. And FRH Magazine offers you this guarantee if, in spite of strict quality – control inspections, a defective record or cassette slips through, you only have to return it within a month of receipt and you get an immediate replacement.

Think about it: CARE FOR YOU offers you popular music in a romantic vein on 5 stereo records or cassettes – 25 bestselling songs, freshly performed by top orchestras and vocal groups! The price is even a bigger, pleasanter surprise: Only $150!

This offer, however, cannot last long enough for all FRH Magazine subscribers to avail themselves of because the expiry date is June 15, 2006. Our advice, therefore, is easier followed than forgotten. ACT NOW by filling out the enclosed order card.

Sincerely yours,

Sara May Santos
Sales Manager

6. Adjustment 

     A letter responding to a claim letter tat explains how the claim occurred.

    Types of adjustment letters:

    1. When the letter is at fault

        If the firm is to blame, then a frank admission with an expression of regret should be the beginning statement.

   2. When the customer is to blame.

        No strict policy exists for adjusting claims made by customers who are responsible for their own complaint.

        a. Claim refused - If the customer is to blame, and the claim is to be refused, the seller thinks that the claim is unreasonable, and the customer is taking advantage of the situation.


August 1, 1992

Jops Singson
MCE Enterprise
Sta. Cruz, Lubao

Dear Mr. Singson:

Thank you very much for writing us as you did in your letter of July 15, concerning the teaspoons which you sent us about a month ago for exchange.

Surely, there is no excuse whatever for our keeping five teaspoons for one month for the simple matter of changing the finish.  We are frank in confessing that a mistake in our repair department is responsible for this delay, and that we have accordingly taken this department to task.

We are sending you today five teaspoons, French finish, no charge to replace the five teaspoons, bright finish which you sent us.

We are mighty sorry that this delay occurred. You may be sure that we shall make every effort to see that it does not occur again.

Very truly yours,

Mike Mousen
General Manager

7. Credit 

     A letter indicating the seller's faith or belief in the buyer's ability to pay for goods within a specified time.


August 25, 2002

Ronald H. Santos
# 143 Matalino St.
Rizal, Antipolo City

ABC National Credit Bureau
Morayta St.
Divisoria, Manila

Dear Sir/Madam:

This is to request for a free copy of my credit report maintained in your credit database.

Please use the following personal information to trace and forward the report to me:

Full name: Ronald Herrera Santos
Birthday: October 21, 1971
Social Security Number: 01454781
Address:  #143 Matalino St. Rizal, Antipolo City

I have enclosed herewith a copy of my driver’s license as a proof of my address and a photocopy of my Social Security Card.  If you have any questions concerning this request I can be reached at (02) 791-2911.

Thank you for your prompt attention to my request.


Ronald H. Santos

8. Collection

     A letter reminding payment for the money borrowed, merchandise or goods charged that must be paid.
People living within their means and are cynical about "plastic money" or credit cards do not entangle themselves with collection letters. While some people who have been granted credit pey their bills faithfully and on time, others need to be remended when their accounts are past due. A principle of credit which is mutual faith in action is: " The customer is trustworthy until he is proven otherwise."
     An effective collection letter has a two-fold purpose: to collect the money and to keep the customer's goodwill. To achieve this, you have to pay attention to the following essentials:

     1. Your letter should be cheerful, confident, and optimistic.
     2. Your tone should be friendly but insistent; considerate but constructive; sympathetic yet firm.

    Parkhust (1983), says, " The tone depends upon the style of credit customer, the age of the account, the kind of business, the nature of the business (manufacturer, wholesaler, or retailer), the credit terms and other similar factors."


October 22, 2001

Mrs. Carla Estrada
MER Boutique
Alfonso, Cavite City

Dear Mrs. Estrada:

In looking over our records, we find that your account shows unpaid balance totaling Php 12,587.00.

We are fully aware that a matter like this slips one’s mind.  It has happened to us, too.  But you must realize that, from our point of view, it is more serious, we are sure that you understand this.  According to our check-up, there is no error in our records, but, if you think there is an error, please let us know.

It will be highly appreciated if you will pay this balance promptly or inform us of any reason why you should not do so.


Lenny Ricks

 9. Job Application

     A letter offering your services to a company by presenting your qualifications and character and personality traits. You will be eager to get to work as soon as you graduate from school, and probably the first letter that you will write is the letter of application. This letter performs a very important function in aiding you to get the right job.

    You letter serves as your personal emissary and it functions as your embassador of goodwill. It is also your personal sales letter because you are selling yourself to a prospective employer. Specifically, your letter offers your services by presenting your educational qualifications and character and personality traits.

    Your letter should favorably attract the attention of the prospective employer and influence him or her to give an interview. To achieve this , your letter must be faultless in expression, and convincing in tone. Furthermore, it should be neat and pleasant to look at.

     When you write this letter, you should have in mind these important pointers:

     1. Your letter is your personal emissary.

     2. The application letter is not an autobiography.

     3. Your emphasis is on the "You" point of view; and

     4. Your interest is in the employer's business.

      What then are the selling points of an application letter? Definitely, employers will be impressed by a letter that incorporates the 8 cs earlier discussed in this chapter. They also looked for character-individuality, which means they prefer applicant who stands out above the rest. How can you make yourself different from the rest? Present your qualification in such a manner that the prospective employer is convinced that you have a pleasing personality, and that you have a capability for the job. Anticipate questions such as:

     1. Has this person the talent, education, and experience to do the job?

     2. Has this person the capacity to grow with the company?

     3. Will he or she be able to assume added burdens and responsibilities?


April 2010

The Administrative Officer
The Royal Thai Embassy in Manila

Dear Ms. Pong:


I am a Communications graduate of the University of the Philippines-Diliman with several years of working experience gained from some of the Philippines’ reputable private firms, a non-governmental organization, and government.

I am writing to apply for the position of Executive Assistant advertised on jobstreet.com.ph on 10 May 2010. This position particularly interests me because it would enable me to make full use of my administrative and organizational skills. I have well-developed written and oral communication skills that can be very useful in carrying out the duties for the above-mentioned position.

On top of these competencies, I adhere to a work ethic and can effectively interact with people across all levels of the organizational structure. I believe I can be an asset to your organization.

My resume is enclosed with this cover letter. It shows my overall expertise and experience in the field. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss my suitability for the position and comply with your other requirements. I can be contacted during working hours at (632) 857-0100 local 1101.
Thank you very much.




Module 09

Posted on Tuesday, March 15, 2011 by Angel

Module 09: Proposals, Case Studies and Business Comminication
Posted by: Angelita P. Oblianda
Source: Interactive Technical Writing by P.C.Villamarzo



           From the previous module, you have learned the skills on conducting and writing research reports. Some of the other technical papers that you may also be asked to write are the proposals, case studies and business communication.  All of these reports are formal and are written differently in terms of content, organization, and style.

The Technical Proposal or Business Proposal

          One of the most important formal reports that you should learn to write is the proposal. Knowing how to prepare a good proposal can spell SUCCESS for you, especially when you shall be practicing your profession. 

          To layman, a proposal could mean anything that is offered. It could be an offering of a suggestion, opinion, help, or service to a friend. In the field of technical profession, however, a proposal is a  " written offer to solve a technical problem in a particular way, under a specified plan of management, for a certain sum of money."This proposal is also known as business proposal. For a non-technical field of study, however, a proposal is a blueprint, a plan, or a particular technique to seek answers or solutions to research questions or problems. It is also known as a research proposal.

The acceptance and the rejection of the proposal will depend on certain factors such as:

1. Clarity
     The plan or solution offered is discussed in detail and leaves no doubt in the mind of the client as to how it will be implemented.

2. Practicality

     The solution offered is achievable and will not cause incidental burdens to the client. Often, alternative solution are proffered, too.

3. Efficiency

          The plan considers and explains what is to be done and needed at every stage of the proposal-labor, materials, time-frames, and costs.

         Companies put much importance on business proposals. Excellent proposals can mean bigger revenues or better market-ability of products. Poor proposals can result in disasters to companies. Many companies, therefore, solicit proposals from people they perceive as responsible and efficient; at times, they also receive unsolicited proposals.

         When you write a solicited proposal, realize that you are one among several proponents. You must therefore, adhere to all the requirements of your client such as length, coverage or scope, and number of copies, to name a few. Unsolicited proposals are more exacting, because you have to convince your client that you know and understand their need, and that you are qualified to answer that need.

        Proposals are vary in length. They can be as short as less than 10 pages or as voluminous as 100 pages or more. Whether long or short, in addition to the three factors that have been previously mentioned, all proposals should be factual, correct, courteous, logical, persuasive, and objective.

How will you write a Technical Proposals? The following are the suggested steps:

1. First, study the needs or the problem of the client.
2. Know their requirements such as deadlines, lengths, and scope of proposals, facilities or equipment you can provide, and budget limitations.
3. Draft your proposal and include your objectives, qualifications, and the methods of solving the clients problem.
4. Make it formal by using appropriate language.
5. Include the following parts:

     a. Front matters - title page, table of contents, list of tables and figures, abstracts

     b. Body of proposal - introduction, problem, objectives, procedures, methods of evaluating proposals,

     c. Additional parts - references, additional figures, tables, or graphs

6. Write the final copy.

The Research Proposal

         Using the scientific method, the researchers begin with a problem around which they formulate questions. Then, they develop hypothesis and predict the answers to their questions. To prove or disprove their hypothesis, they observe, experiment, and, depending on the results, they either accept or reject their hypothesis.

         Adopt this method when you write your research proposal. Begin with the statement of your problem and formulate your hypothesis. You may state you research problem in a series of questions that seek to identify or show the relationship between two or more variables, concept or phenomena related to the problem.

Your research should have the following parts:

1. Chapter 1 : The Problem

         This includes a background of the study that clearly and adequately describes the facts and theories supporting your study, the hypothesis, the significance and scope of your study, and your conceptual or theoretical framework. The conceptual framework differs from the theoretical framework in that the first discusses ideas, concepts and constructs and their relationship between and among variables, while the latter states the theory or the theories underlying the study.

2. Chapter 2 : The Review of Related Literature

        You should provide a summary of all reviewed and critiqued materials in a concise and comprehensive manner. Be sure also to include the latest developments that are related to your study.

3. Chapter 3 : Methodology

       This part explains the design of your study, the criteria, and the procedures to gathering data, the instruments that will be used in gathering data, and the treatment and the analysis of data. You are also required to justify your choice of design, criteria, and procedures, tools, and method of analyzing the data.

The Case Study

A case study is a research method common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. They may be prospective, in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available, or retrospective, in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study.

Case study refers to the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including the accounts of subjects themselves. A form of qualitative descriptive research, the case study looks intensely at an individual or small participant pool, drawing conclusions only about that participant or group and only in that specific context. Researchers do not focus on the discovery of a universal, generalizable truth, nor do they typically look for cause-effect relationships; instead, emphasis is placed on exploration and description.

Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses.

Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Case study research means single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data. This is also supported and well-formulated in (Lamnek, 2005): "The case study is a research approach, situated between concrete data taking techniques and methodologic paradigms."

Case studies typically examine the interplay of all variables in order to provide as complete an understanding of an event or situation as possible. This type of comprehensive understanding is arrived at through a process known as thick description, which involves an in-depth description of the entity being evaluated, the circumstances under which it is used, the characteristics of the people involved in it, and the nature of the community in which it is located. Thick description also involves interpreting the meaning of demographic and descriptive data such as cultural norms and mores, community values, ingrained attitudes, and motives.

Unlike quantitative methods of research, like the survey, which focus on the questions of who, what, where, how much, and how many, and archival analysis, which often situates the participant in some form of historical context, case studies are the preferred strategy when how or why questions are asked. Likewise, they are the preferred method when the researcher has little control over the events, and when there is a contemporary focus within a real life context. In addition, unlike more specifically directed experiments, case studies require a problem that seeks a holistic understanding of the event or situation in question using inductive logic--reasoning from specific to more general terms.

In scholarly circles, case studies are frequently discussed within the context of qualitative research and naturalistic inquiry. Case studies are often referred to interchangeably with ethnography, field study, and participant observation. The underlying philosophical assumptions in the case are similar to these types of qualitative research because each takes place in a natural setting (such as a classroom, neighborhood, or private home), and strives for a more holistic interpretation of the event or situation under study.

Unlike more statistically-based studies which search for quantifiable data, the goal of a case study is to offer new variables and questions for further research. F.H. Giddings, a sociologist in the early part of the century, compares statistical methods to the case study "on the basis that the former are concerned with the distribution of a particular trait, or a small number of traits, in a population, whereas the case study is concerned with the whole variety of traits to be found in a particular instance" (Hammersley 95).

Types of Case Study

1. Illustrative Case Studies

These are primarily descriptive studies. They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show what a situation is like. Illustrative case studies serve primarily to make the unfamiliar familiar and to give readers a common language about the topic in question.

2. Exploratory (or pilot) Case Studies

These are condensed case studies performed before implementing a large scale investigation. Their basic function is to help identify questions and select types of measurement prior to the main investigation. The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions.

3. Cumulative Case Studies

These serve to aggregate information from several sites collected at different times. The idea behind these studies is the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies.

4. Critical Instance Case Studies

These examine one or more sites for either the purpose of examining a situation of unique interest with little to no interest in generalization, or to call into question or challenge a highly generalized or universal assertion. This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions.
Business Communication 
        Holy Steil (2000) says that learning the skills of good communication will be the deciding factor in your success or failure in your business as well as your personal relationships. To be understood requires that you take the time to listen to the person with whom you are communicating. Only then can you choose the language to suit the communication situation.
        Memos like letters are written for a variety of purpose such as responding to a request for specific information or action from someone, in relation to a project on which you are working. In addition, many internal reports, such as trip reports, progress reports, and short proposals, may be in memo form.

 For business communication, there are 9 Cs of effective communication (Murphy and Hilderandth, 1998) that you need to implement:

1. Completeness

          Complete message usually bring about desired results.
          Your business message is complete when it contains all the facts that the readers need. The complete information that the readers need not only brings satisfaction but also builds goodwill. Promoting goodwill, after all, is the ultimate purpose of any business communication.


      Class presidents shall have a meeting on June 16 at 10:00 am at the Dean's office.

 2. Conciseness

          A concise letter includes only the information that is necessary, without, of course, sacrificing clarity and completeness. To achieve conciseness, eliminate wordy expressions and unnecessary repetitions. As Stewart et al. (1999) says, " Beauty is desirable, but it must not be used at the expense of clarity and completeness." 


     wordy: Upon receipt of this letter, I would like you to know that your order will be delivered on the date  
                 stated in your latter.
    concise: Delivery of your sofa and coffee table is set not later than 5 p/m. today, June 6, 2003.

3. Consideration

        This is adopting the "you" attitude in business messages. You have to convey an appreciation of your reader's position by writing information from the standpoint of how it will affect or interest your reader. By emphasizing your reader's standpoint of view, and the benefits of the information to your reader, you create a friendly, helpful tone in your message. Thus, focus in "you" instead of "I" and "we" in your correspondence.


     we-attitude - I want to express my thanks for your participation.
     you-attitude - Thank you for your participation.

4. Concreteness

         Your message is concrete when it is specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague, abstract, and general. Concreteness in communication can be achieved by using specific facts and figures, by putting action in your verbs, and by choosing clear and image-building words.


     abstract and general: This printer prints fast.
     concrete and vivid: This laser printer prints 15 copies per minute.

5. Clarity

        Clear transmission of message is the key to understanding the message you have conveyed. To make your messages clear, you have to do the following:

     1. Present only the idea in each sentence.
     2. Arrange your sentences in such a manner that it is easy for your readers to follow the flow of your 
    3. Do not jump from sentence to sentence or from topic to topic.
    4. Include examples, illustrations, and other visual aids, when desirable.


     Confusing paragraph:
         We have been advised that the alottment for the above-numbered policy was filed effective April 1, 2000, but in as much as the premium due March 1, 2000 of P490 has not been remitted and inasmuch as allotment payments are not applicable to premiums due and payable in advance on the effective date of allotment, we hereby request that you contact the insured directly and request payment of this premium date.


        Allotment payments can be applied only to premiums falling after the effective date of allotment. Since the allotment did not become effective on this policy until March 1, 2000, it cannot pay the March 1, 2000 premium of P490. May we ask you to collect it?

6. Courtesy

         Expressions like, "Thank You" and "Please" are always appreciated when they are used sincerely, not mechanically, in oral and written communication. Courtesy, in letter writing, consists in using those words and phrases that indicate a willingness to serve. It likewise means the avoidance of all statements that may offend the reader. It is also a mental attitude , which implies deference, respect, consideration, and helpfulness.


     tactless: We are surprised you are not satisfied with our adjustment for your complaint.
     courteous: We are sorry you were not completely satisfied with the quality of the last shipment of ladies
                     shoes that we sent on January 8, 2003.
     discourteous: We know the difficult times of business nowadays, but we can no longer stretch your
                      credit line. Of course, we shall accept your orders on a cash basis.
     courteous: We appreciate your order and we want your business. We believe, however, that at present,
                      you should not stock up so heavily. It would be better if you place a smaller order and take
                      advantage of our cash discount.

7. Correctness

          Your messages are correct when they are free of all errors in grammar and sentence and paragraph structures. They are also correct if you use appropriate language and accurate facts and figures.


     wrong: In quoting prices to your customers, they should be given your most favorable terms.
     correct: In quoting prices to your customers, you should give them your most favorable terms.

8. Character

         A business letter that has character reveals the individuality and the distinctiveness of the writer's personality. Your letter must, therefore, be free from worn-out and mechanical expressions.



           Dear Sir:
           We have received your request of April 8 together with your order for 1000 of Italian tiles.
           We wish to state that we will make shipment on this order within a week.
           Hoping for a continuance of your future orders, we beg to remain.

     friendly and personal:

          Dear Mr. Dalisay:

          Thank you for your order of April 8 for one thousand pieces of white Italian tiles . We shall be able to
          make shipment within a week. You will find them to be of the same high quality as the others  we have
          sold you.

         Sincerely yours,

9. Cheerfulness

          The purpose of business communication is to build up, not to break up. Cheerfulness in the business message is writing positively rather than negatively, that is you have to show in your sentences a genuine willingness to serve your readers. Make them feel also that you are able and eager to help them. Regardless of the purpose of your latter, you can make them receptive to your plan by writing in a cheerful vein. Cheerfulness suggests friendliness.
To achieve cheerfulness, you should use positive and tactful language.


     negative: We do not accept returned items with broken seals.
     positive: We accept any returned item with the seal intact.


Module 08

Posted on Monday, March 14, 2011 by Angel

Module 08: APA style
Posted by: Angelita P. Oblianda
Sources: Interactive Technical Writing by P.C. Villamarzo et al.


      The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is a large reference book that contains guidelines on the format of citations and tips on writing. 

 Study the following guidelines:
 1. Separate the four main parts of a citation (author, date, title, and publication details)  with periods. Use commas within  each part except between the place of publication and the publisher where a colon is used. Enclose in parentheses other information like edition number.

2. Should the book have a later edition, enclose this in parentheses right after the title.

3. Indent the first line of an entry.

4. Write the last name of the author, followed by the initials of his first name.

5. Enclose in parentheses the year of publication. Add the month only when a periodical has no volume number. 

6. Do not underline the title of the article; underline or write in italics, however, the name of the periodical  (journal, magazine). 

7. Underline or write in italics the title of a book.

8. Do not capitalize the entire titles of books and articles in the list of references. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the titles, the word after a colon, and the first letter of a proper name. 

9. Capitalize the first letter of the first word and the first letter of each major word in the title of the journal. Short prepositions, conjunctions, and article should not be capitalized unless they are the first words in the title.

10. Start with the title when alphabetizing for a book that has no author.

11. Cite the encyclopedia articles in the same way as articles in an edited book.

12. Write the name of the corporate author or editor in position, such as committee or an association , for alphabetizing purposes.

13. Abbreviate the name of the publishing company as much as possible by omitting initials and words such as company or corporation.

14. Use the symbol & instead of and between names of authors.

15. You may write References instead of Bibliography for the list of source materials.

(cited in Menache, 1997)

Study carefully the following Examples that illustrate the APA format:

1. book written be a single author

          Menache, L. (1997). Writing a research paper. (2nd ed.) Michigan: Michigan University Press.

2. book written by two authors

          Elbow, P. & Belanof, P. (1995). A community of writers : a workshop course in writing (2nd ed.). U.S.A.: Steven Pensinger, Inc.

3. article in journal

         Maldonado,N.S. (1992). Making TV environmentally safe for children. Children Education, 68, 229-230.

4. article in a magazine

         Possner,M.I. (1993, October). Seeing the mind. Science, 262.673-674.

5. article with no author from a newspaper

         New drug appears to sharply cut risks of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p.A12.

6. article from an encyclopedia or dictionary

         Sadie, S. (ed.). (1980). The new grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20). London: McMillan.

7. unpublished doctoral dissertation

         Juffs. A. (1993). Learnability and the lexicon: Chinese learners' acquisition of English argument structure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

8. for electronic publications

        There are no periods at the end of entries because periods are part of electronic addresses and adding periods will only confuse the readers. You may add the date of access in brackets at the end of an on-line entry.


          Ling, R. (1996). Cyber McCarthyism:witch hunts in the living room. Electronic Journal of Sociology 2. Available : http://olympus. Lang.arts.alberta.ca:8010/vol002.001/Ling.article.1996.html [1997, January 3].

Arrange the following references according to APA format:

1. Angelita P. Oblianda. Cebu: Cebu University Press. (2009). Writing in Discipline. (1st ed) .

2. Cuyag, Charlie and Grace Mantica, Techical Writing, ULA: Fixer Inc. (2011).

3. Philippine Journal, Jose Amigo (2001), Children Education, 53-60.

4. (1999, December). Fhin Jamora. Family Life Journal, Mother's Love to Her Daughter. 119-121.

5. Perseus, Villaflor A. Technical Writing. USA: Sphinx Inc. (2002). APA Style.

Module 07

Posted on by Angel

Module 07: Structure of Research Reports
Posted by: Angelita P. Oblianda
Sources: Interactive Technical Writing by P.C. Villamarzo et al.



           Just like any other academic paper, a research report generall contains three essential parts and they are as follows:

1. The Introductory Paragraphs

         This part explains why the subject has been chosen, summarizes the past studies or previous researches about the subject, paves the way for the present research by indicating that the previous researches may have missed something, states the purpose and the significance of the present research, and the ends with the thesis statement or the research problem. 

2. The Body

          This is the longest and the most substantial part. It includes the critical review of related materials and studies ;describes the research design and method; and presents, analyze, and interprets the data gathered. Tables and graphs may be used to support ideas. 

3. The Concluding Paragraphs

          These present the summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations that the researcher has generated after analyzing and evaluating the data. the primary purpose of the conclusion is to end the paper, not to say something new.
          After , you are at the editing stage. As has been pointed out in the first chapter, you have to edit your paper until it is almost perfect. During the editing process, check your spelling, punctuation marks, word choice, and sentence structures. Next, find out how you can improve the expression of ideas, their clarity, logical sequence, coherence, and organization.

         Lastly, write or encode your final paper. If you are working with a team, each member must take an active part in all the stages of the research process.

Here is a checklists to guide you in your editing and revision:

A. On Topic and Support

     1. Is the topic clearly presented?
     2. Has it been adequately narrowed?
     3. Is the thesis sufficiently supported by details?
     4. Are the details clear and convincing?

B. On Organization

     1. Are ideas logically  and clearly presented?
     2. Are there appropriate transitions within and between the paragraphs?
     3. Does the research report contains all the necessary parts? 
     4. Are the parts of the research report coherent adequately discussed?

C. On The Use Of Sources

     1. Are sources used varied?
     2. Are they properly cited or documented?
     3.Are the sources indicated in a bibliography or list of references?
     4. Are the entries in the list complete?

D. On Style and Readability
     1. Is the language used formal?
     2.Are the words familiar and Easy to Understand?
     3. Are there difficult terms that have not been defined?
     4. Are the sentence structures varied?

Think of a topic which you can relate on. Make a report that contains the three essential parts; the introduction, the body and the conclusion.

Module 06

Posted on Wednesday, March 9, 2011 by Angel

Module 06: The Research
Posted by: Angelita P. Oblianda
Sources: Interactive Technical Writing by P.C. Villamarzo et al.

        You learned the principles of technical writing and the ways of developing your style in the previous modules. Now, lets know more about research.


         Research may be defined literally as "to search out more" (Selltiz, et al. 1971). According to Kerlinger (1986), research is systematic, objective, and comprehensive investigation of a certainphenomenon. It involves accurate gathering of data and critical anlyzing  and interpreting these data. Webster defines research as an invetigation undertyaken to discover new facts or to get additional information. All these definitions tell you that when you conduct a research, your main purpose is to find information in order to verify or expand your existing knowledge on a certain topic or subject.


     1. Systematic
         Research should clearly follow an orderly procedure in discovering truth or in finding a solution to a problem. 

     2. Analytical

         The data gathered should be thoroughly studied to avoid errors in interpretation. 

     3. Empirical

         Conclusions drawn from hard evidence should reflect authentic life experiences or observations.

     4. Valid and Verifiable

           Conclusions drawn should be based on findings and results and should be correct.

     5. Controlled

           All considered variables, except those that are tested, should be kept constant.


    1. Application of the Research Study

              2 Classifications

    a. Pure research is done to discover basic truths or principles.Researchers gather information not to solve any problem or recommend solutions  but to expand their knowledge about a particular topic  that interest them or they have little knowledge about. 


5 Main Types of Complementary / Alternative Medicine

     One of the most helpful things the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has done is to help people understand the many complementary and alternative treatments by classifying them into five broad categories:

1. Alternative Medical Systems

    Alternative medical systems are built upon complete systems of theory and practice. Often, these systems have evolved apart from and earlier than the conventional medical approach used in the United States. Examples of alternative medical systems include:

    * Acupuncture
    * Ayurveda
    * Homeopathy
    * Native American healing practices
    * Naturopathic medicine
    * Tibetan medicine
    * Traditional Chinese medicine

2. Mind-Body Interventions

    Mind-body medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to enhance the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. Some techniques that were considered alternative in the past have become mainstream (for example, patient support groups and cognitive-behavioral therapy).

Other mind-body techniques are still considered alternative, including:

    * Art therapy
    * Biofeedback
    * Dance therapy
    * Guided imagery
    * Humor therapy
    * Meditation
    * Music therapy
    * Prayer therapy
    * Yoga

3. Biologically-Based Therapies

    Biologically based therapies in complementary and alternative medicine use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins. Some examples include:

    * Diet
    * Dietary supplements
    * Herbal products
    * Megavitamins

It also includes the use of other so-called natural but as yet scientifically unproven therapies (for example, using shark cartilage to treat cancer).

4. Manipulative and Body-Based Methods

    Manipulative and body-based methods in complementary and alternative medicine are based on manipulation and/or movement of one or more parts of the body. Some examples include:

    * Acupressure
    * Alexander Technique
    * Chiropractic
    * Feldenkrais Method
    * Massage therapy
    * Osteopathy
    * Reflexology
    * Rolfing
    * Therapeutic Touch
    * Trager Approach

5. Energy Therapies

    Energy therapies involve the use of energy fields. They are of two types:

    Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body. The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically proven. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and/or manipulating the body by placing the hands in, or through, these fields. Examples include:

    * Qi gong
    * Reiki
    * Therapeutic Touch

Bioelectromagnetic-based therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields, such as:

    * Pulsed fields
    * Magnetic fields
    * alternating-current or direct-current fields
  b. Applied research is conducted to clarify an issue or solve a problem. Researchers gather information to recommend solutions to pressing problems or issues.


Strategies for Teaching Poetry Under Pressure

    It was my first year teaching and Mr. Nobreaks sat in the back of the room writing my teacher evaluation. Things were going well until Susan Angst in the fifth row spoke. "Mr. Nochance," she asked, "These are great poems and I realize you know strategies for teaching poetry and know the meaning of poetry, but when will I ever use this?"

    I could have said that knowing the meaning of poetry increases reading comprehension and enables students to develop critical thinking skills, and that they should listen to me because I know strategies for teaching poetry really well. Instead, I blacked out, fell down, cracked my head on a desk, and spouted blood all over the chalk board. Mr Nobreaks fired me on the spot and my Meaning of Poetry Lesson Plan has remained dormant ever since.

Until now.

Strategies for Teaching Poetry

   1. Pay attention to form. The form of a poem is the physical arrangement of the words on a page. This includes the way lines are placed, their grouping, and their length.
          * Look at the poem before you read it.
          * Examine whether the lines and stanzas form a regular pattern. If not, determine why.
          * Listen for rhythm as you read the poem aloud.
          * Pause where punctuation marks appear, not where the line ends. Stopping at appropriate spots helps clarify meaning.
   2. Pay attention to sound devices. Skilled poets use sound devices for a reason, usually to draw attention to major points.
          * Read the poem aloud several times.
          * Identify the sound devices and determine why the poet chose them.
          * Determine the rhyme scheme.
          * Look for near rhyme. Poets often use near rhyme to make the reader focus on an important word.
          * Determine the purpose of the sound.
   3. Look for figurative language. Because poets have fewer words with which to work, they must use them sparingly. Figurative language allows them to cover much with little.
          * Visualize figurative language.
          * Analyze the meaning of each metaphor or simile.
   4. Look at the title. Determine if the title contributes any special meaning to the poem.
   5. Make connections. Personalizing poetry makes it meaningful.
   6. Summarize the poem's meaning.


   1. Copy and discuss the above information.
   2. Read a poem.
   3. As a class, do the suggestions above. It's very important that you model how to determine the meaning of a poem.
   4. Read a poem. One with which students are familiar will encourage them to dig deeper to find meaning.
   5. Write a paragraph analysis of the poem using the suggestions above.

2. Objectives in Undertaking the Study
                 4 Classifications

     a. Descriptive research items aims to present clearly an existing situation, problem or phenomenon. A research that show the attitudes of students to classical literature is one example of this type.


The Attitudes of University Students to Classical Music Concerts: A Study in Consumer Behavior
       The main purpose of this research is to acquire an understanding of consumer behaviour regarding classical music, through a consumer investigation study. The main objective is to examine why university students in Taipei, Taiwan, appreciate classical music concerts. How the different sub-cultures influence consumer behaviour is the main factor discussed within this research. Methods employed in this study include data collection, literature review, and questionnaire analysis. Firstly, we try to understand how consumers enjoy classical music concerts. Secondly, we study the relationship between the consumers' sub-cultures and their attendance. Thirdly, we analyze the main factors which influence university students to appreciate classical music concerts. Finally, we conclude that the sub-culture, gender and age of consumers, influences consumer behaviour and appreciation of classical music concerts.

1. Introduction

    Chang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall started to host classical music concerts in 1987. Also due to the Western musical impact on Eastern culture, demand for classical music concerts has been nourishing. Each philharmonic orchestra keenly invited domestic and overseas experts to be their conductors and give advice. A good example is the Taipei Sinfonietta and Philharmonic Orchestra. Since 1988, it was a small music orchestra and it has performed more classical music concerts every year.

    Due to the factors described above, every year in Taiwan, several hundred different types of classical music performances take place. According to research by Yu-Jing Lin, Pei-Chen Lee, and Hsiang-Chun Tai in 1989, 1996, 2001 respectively, it was easy to see that within audiences of the performing arts, the biggest group was students.

    For these reasons, students comprise the main market for classical music concerts. In this research, the main objective is to research student appreciation of classical music concerts. The main focus is the appreciation of classical music concerts by university students in Taipei.

2. Literature Review

    The literature review will start by studying the main points of research into this area. It focuses on how consumers make relevant decisions and what motivates them to attend classical music concerts.

    Blackwell (2001) defines consumer behaviour as the activities people undertake when consuming, and disposing of products and services. There are several activities included in this definition of consumer behaviour:

    Obtaining refers to the activities leading up to, and including, the purchase or receipt of a product. These include the way in which consumers search for information about classical music performances, how they book tickets, for example, by telephone or over the Internet, and how culture influences consumer behaviour.

    Consuming refers to how, where and under what circumstances, consumers use products. For example, when consumers decide whether to attend classical music concerts, what are the factors they consider? Do they think about price, the convenience of the location, or their own personal interests? Where do they usually enjoy classical music?

      b. Correlation is undertaken to discover the existence of relationship, association or interdependence between two or more aspects of the situation. 

Student Retention Services – College Success & Learning Strategies

          Retention services helps students develop personal responsibility, self-motivation, persistence, and other skills which empower them to make wiser choices and, therefore, achieve greater academic success.  The following information is a synopsis of critical practices that can make a difference between academic success and failure.

Success Strategies:

    * Tips for Success In the Classroom
    * Tips for Success Outside the Classroom
    * General Study Strategies
    * Academic Survival Tips
    * Tips for On-Line Courses
    * Effectively Using Library Resources for Research Assignments
    * Are you ready to take an Online-Course?
    * Differences between High School and College

Tips for Success In the Classroom:

    * Attend all classes in their entirety and arrive on-time. If you must miss class, contact your instructor as soon as possible to clarify any problems. Arrive on time, nothing frustrates and annoys a professor more than students walking in late and distracting both the professor and other students.
    * Read the text material scheduled for lecture prior to attending class. While reading, write in your notebook any questions that arise. If your instructor doesn't address these questions during lecture, make sure you ask for help afterwards. Don't let problems accumulate until it becomes too late.
    * Don't be afraid to explore new study techniques. As an example, "concept mapping" is a much better way to study concepts than "flash cards". If you are unfamiliar with the process of "concept mapping", please visit your campus Retention Services for instruction on this technique.
    * Do not procrastinate studying or assignment preparation. Attempts to "cram" study for tests will likely not be successful. Remember, instructors recommend that you devote two hours of study each week for each hour spent in class during the week.
    * Turn in papers and assignments by deadlines - students who turn in assignments on time will usually see higher grades than students who miss deadlines.  Being on time often provides you an opportunity to rewrite papers or correct assignments that late students miss.

Tips for Success Outside the Classroom:

    * Attend Orientation.  College can be a maze of policies and people.  Attending orientation will give you a head start, and will help prepare you for the challenges ahead.
    * Take a class for fun.  If you are taking a course you enjoy, it will re-fuel you for those that are a bit more difficult for you.
    * Work on campus.  Studies show that students who work on campus succeed at a far higher rate than those who do not. This is because students who work on campus know many staff and faculty members they can turn to for help in achieving their educational goals.
    * Get involved with student activities.  Join ASCSN Student Government.  The more active you are, the greater your exposure to college processes and personnel.
    * Enroll in a college success course.  Courses such as ALS 101 (Academic and Life Skills) provide you with additional skills to succeed in the classroom and beyond. Return to Success Strategies

General Study Strategies:
    * How to Read and Study the Sciences
    * How to Study Math
    * Technique for Reading Textbooks
    * Test Taking Techniques
    * Writing a Research Paper

Academic Survival Tips:
    * Improving Memory Skills
    * Improving Scholastic Motivation
    * Speaking and Relating to Your Instructors
    * Effective Time Management
    * Personal Time Calculation Tool
    * The Note-Taking Process
    * Time Schedule Form
    * Time Schedule Sample

Tips for On-Line Courses:

    * Have direct access to a computer and Internet connection. The classroom is accessed through the Web. You must have access to a computer with an Internet connection to take part in the classroom.
    * Must be comfortable expressing yourself in writing, since in the online classroom, nearly all communication is written.
    * Must be self-motivated and self-disciplined. With the freedom and flexibility of the online environment comes responsibility. The online process takes a real commitment and discipline to keep up with the flow of the process.
    * Must "speak up" if problems arise. Many of the non-verbal communication clues that instructors use in determining whether students are having problems (confusion, frustration, boredom, absence, etc.) are not possible in an online class. If you are experiencing difficulty on any level (either with the technology or with the course content), you must communicate this immediately. Otherwise the instructor will never know what is wrong.
    * Must commit 5-10 hours per week per course. Online learning is not easier than the traditional educational process. In fact, many students say it requires more time and commitment.
    * Must value high quality learning outside the traditional classroom. If you feel that a traditional classroom is a prerequisite to learning, you may be more comfortable in a traditional classroom setting. An online learner should expect to:
          o Participate in the virtual classroom 3-5 days a week
          o Respond to classmates' ideas and questions
          o Use technology properly
          o Complete assignments on time
          o Enjoy communicating in writing
    * Follow these overall guidelines to achieve success (© Robert M. Sherfield, Ph.D. 2005):
          o Develop a schedule for completing each assignment and stick to it! This is the biggest problem with online classes.
          o Keep a copy of all work mailed, e-mailed, or delivered to the professor.
          o Always mail, e-mail, or deliver your assignment on time – early if possible.
          o Try to find someone who is registered for the same course so that you can work together or at least have a phone number to call if you run into a problem.
          o Take full advantage of any online orientation or training sessions.
          o Participate in class and in your groups (if you are assigned a group).
          o If you have computer failure, have a back-up plan.
          o Log in EVERYDAY even if you do not have an assignment due.
          o Alert your professor immediately if you have family, computer, or personal problems that would prevent you from completing an assignment on time.
          o Work ahead if possible.
      c. Explanatory research attempts to explore all the possibilities causes of a certain phenomenon. 


Main cause of decline in English proficiency among youth

       Most educators know -- and there are studies that support this -- that one must know his/her mother tongue in the early years before he/she should try learning to speak in any other language.

      The medium of instruction in our schools may be a factor in developing our students’ and graduates’ proficiency in English. I believe, however, that the main reason for the decline in English proficiency among our young is that they spend more time watching TV or playing video games than reading.

     I cannot quote actual studies here, but from observation, I think our youth, in general, read less than their elders. Most young people today squander precious time absorbing trash from television, sitting passively in front of the “box.” I challenge parents to help stop or reverse this downward trend, and to encourage our children to read and grow intellectually.

I challenge our scholars to make a study on the relationship between reading and the box, on one hand, and achievement, on the other; and to tell the nation about their findings. I challenge our lawmakers to act on this problem.

Let’s think up of ways to promote reading and to limit television viewing among the young.


      d. Exploratory research / Feasibility study / Pilot study is conducted to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular study.  Questions about the study are frequently raised before it undertaken.


Adding or changing a program of study

At the University of Ottawa, students obtain a bachelor's degree upon successful completion of an undergraduate program that generally includes three components:
1) A basic skills module (also called "foundational courses")
2) A discipline-specific module in one or several programs
3) A series of elective courses
The program a student chooses determines the discipline in which the degree is earned. Several programs can be combined in a number of areas.
If necessary, use the Request to change or add a program tool available on InfoWeb (via uoZone).

Adding a second discipline is possible for programs in the following faculties:

  • Arts
  • Sciences
  • Social Sciences
  • All joint honours bachelor’s degree programs
  • The Honours BSc in Ophthalmic Medical Technology program
  • The BSc with Honours in Biopharmaceutical Science program
  • The BSc with Honours in Environmental Science program
  • The BSc with Honours in Physical Geography program
  • Honours BSc with Specialization in Biochemistry (biotechnology)/BASc in Chemical Engineering (biotechnology)

Adding a major or a minor is also possible in:

  • Human Kinetics (Faculty of Health Sciences)
  • Health Sciences (Faculty of Health Sciences)
  • Computer Science (Faculty of Engineering)
  • Business Administration (Telfer School of Management)


Mandatory additions
Optional additions
Honours with specialization
Honours (multidisciplinary program)
Honours (joint honours bachelor's)
Honours with major
major or minor
Four-year bachelor's with major
major or minor
Four-year bachelor's with minor
Three-year general bachelor's
Three-year general bachelor's with minor

Here are the possible questions that can be raised:

1. What courses should be added to improve the programs?
2. How should these additional courses be designed to enrich existing programs?

3. Type of Information Sought 

       2 Classifications

   a. Qualitative research may present data which have been gathered in non-numerical form.


    A researcher might want to find out how successful the graduates of a particular program of study have been from 1995-200. The study could seek answers to questions such as:

1. What job have most of the graduates found?
2. Are these jobs suited to their training and preparation in college?
3. What factors motivate them to stay in their present jobs?
4. What attitudes towards work do they manifest in their work place?

     b. Quantitative research presents information that has been gathered  through the use of variables measured on nominal or ordinal scales.


    A study on the number of professionals who are not practicing their professions and are, instead, into other jobs may fall under this type.


Whether your purpose is to expand your existing knowledge or to find a solution to a problem, you must carefully choose your research design or method. 

3 Methods

1. Historical Method

      The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. The question of the nature, and even the possibility, of a sound historical method is raised in the philosophy of history as a question of epistemology.

    You might want to find out through a study of marriage records over the last twenty years the different factors or variables which have affected the marrying age of today's young professionals.
2. Descriptive Method
            Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how...Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity.The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. But there are always restrictions to that. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you. For example, finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.


     One that shows the need for censorship of TV programs and movies.

3. Experimental Method

       The experimental method is usually taken to be the most scientific of all methods, the 'method of choice'.  The main problem with all the non-experimental methods is lack of control over the situation.  The experimental method is a means of trying to overcome this problem.  The experiment is sometimes described as the cornerstone of psychology: This is partly due to the central role experiments play in many of the physical sciences and also to psychology's historical view of itself as a science.  A considerable amount of psychological research uses the experimental method.

3 Setbacks

a.  The condition of the experiment may involve unfair or even unethical treatment of the subjects 
     as in the example cited. Why should a group be denied important opportunities to develop 
     their skills?

b. The conditions can be artificial; thus, the subjects may also react differently.

c. Extraneous variables may affect the behavior of several members of the experimental group.
Think About It:

Study the hypothesis that follow. What methods might be used to research on each.Explain your answer.

1. Men prefer women who are not as smart as they are.
2. Adults who were firmly disciplined when they were children are more responsible than those whose parents were lenient and permissive.
3. The development of sex role of children is affected by the highly stereotyped male and female characters in children 's literature.
4. Male students are more likely to misbehave in a classroom of all boys.
5. In love, opposites attract.